session industrial revolution

Old dead guys-reinterpret what they have to say

O-late 18-19 century – industrial revolution

O- cottage industries-prior the revolution(how the revolution affected them)

O-strip farming

O-enclosure act

O-commoners-new forest

O-Guy Martin revisiting the industrial revolution

O-Thomas Carlyle-1829

Carlyle(point he is making)-machines and things around you alter the way you think

O-Ruskin 1854

What is happening to the people in the industrial revolution

O- William Morris- Wallpaper+ tapestry designs for red house

Business model

His designs are still produced today

Morris- £why should only rich people have nice


Resurrecting medieval guilds and taking commissions.



O-set up socialist demographic

O- undergraduates in oxford(change their upbringing)

(share their wealth)

O- charts for socialists

O-libertarian socialism-

O- Panoptic an-Jeremy Bentham-1785(see everything-all seeing)a machine(building to reform people)

O-utopia-good coz they want to be

O-Dystopia-good coz scared of punishment

O- Foucault-you are under constant surveillance by-CCTV, but you can not take photos of them(shops, cops)

O-(the panoptic an)(Britain)CCTV always being watched


O- art is about representation

O- Ideology’s are always collective

O- Ideology’s-how we construct what we believe to be real, and they become part of common-sense

O-Ideology’s reinforce power structures

O-((communist Russia fell)-because people stopped believing that communism was a good thing.

O-not fitting in-people make judgments of you.

O-role of ideology- you believe art is good+ useful

O-John Locket-1634-1704

O-Antoine Louis Claude De Stutt  Comte De Tracy

O-find things out +change ideas

O-idea-society can progress

O- correct ideas allow progress

O-good- bad, right + wrong

O-Danton(movies)-situated in Poland at the time of French revolution.


O-society-create a better one

Not natural

O- read Marxist  work

O- ideology used by one class to dominate the other

O-the material force-the bankers, the rich


O-ideology-shirkers + strivers (benefits)

O-legitimate- bonafide claim

O-Charles the first(divine right)to rule


O- how dominant groups keep subordinate groups under them.


O-Hegemony-invisible ideology that subordinates have taken onto make them more like the dominant class.(not in your interest of the dominant group)


O-Repressive state apparatuses-(public)

O-Ideological state(private)

O-James Scott

O-manufacturing consent(book)

O-(Morris’s views on the environment)(Stansky . p 1988 redesigning the world)

O- art and craft movement

O-craft and sustainability-


Idea of utopia. How you would like it to be in your life and around you in 2 weeks.


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Session 4 archiving and conservation.18/11/12

The order of things

O-Damien Hurst  (medicine cabinet)

Archive because



Installation view

Peoples reliance on modern medication

Why???medicine cabinet

O- Jacques Derrida

2 main drives in human lives-

Drive for sex

Drive to death

O-an archive- a collection of stuff

Not always displayed

Recording things, keeping  memories

O-taste – social or cultural phenomenon.

O- Burberry- taste

O-Brian eno

Brian sewell


O- The Mona Lisa-  who views it in which way?

O- lady ga ga meat dress(distaste)(revulsion)

O-Biorc – swan dress- bad taste

O-Liz Herly-good taste-vasachi  because she is posh totty(upper-class)

O-Grayson Perry we’ve found the body of your child 2000- pushing the boundaries of taste.


O- what do we conserve?

Old things, things we value, things we like.

O-Ideas of taste tied up with market value.(cheep, expensive)

O- Bernard leach-modernist potter.

O-Ted Noten – ideas of value


Everything gets a price rather than a value.

O-gate keeping Kurt Lewin (it’s the editor who holds the true power)

About food, 1970s Mcombs

O- Monty John in the 80s

O-value is not static-it changes from group to group.

O- wonder kammer-collecting curiosities, (cabinet of curiosities)

O-Personal gatekeeping-the way you dress, body language, behaviour, to attract people or repel people.

O- cultural gatekeeping-

Middle aged women are invisible(who decides)

Concepts have changed-kids respecting elders has changed

O-why has society changed

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What is taste

Good taste-

86 Moby Thesaurus words for “good taste”: Atticism, acquired taste, appreciation of excellence, appropriateness, chasteness, chastity, choiceness, civilized taste, civilizedness, clarity, classicalism, classicism, clearness, comeliness, correctness, cultivated taste, cultivation, culture, daintiness, delectability, delicacy, deliciousness, dignity, directness, discrimination, distinction, ease, elegance, elegancy, excellence, fastidiousness, felicitousness, felicity, fine flavor, finesse, finish, fittingness, flavorfulness, flavoriness, flavorousness, flavorsomeness, flow, flowing periods, fluency, full flavor, good flavor, goodness, gourmet quality, grace, gracefulness, gracility, graciosity, graciousness, gustatory delightfulness, limpidity, lucidity, lusciousness, naturalness, neatness, niceness, nicety, pellucidity, perspicuity, plainness, polish, propriety, purity, quality, refinement, restraint, right taste, sapidity, savoriness, scrumptiousness, seemliness, simplicity, smoothness, sophistication, straightforwardness, subtlety, taste, tastefulness, tastiness, terseness, toothsomeness, unaffectedness

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taste is  personal choice or preference of  styles, manners, consumer goods and art.

Bad taste-

43798242067 pictureimage-via-factorydirect

It is important to recognise that one person’s idea of bad taste may not be shared by all members of society. Bad taste varies from group to group

To me Lady ga ga is the epitome of bad taste.

But to others she may be a fashion icon.


Why was Bjork’s Swan Dress considered in bad taste?

Was it because she is not upper-class?or was it because she was laying ostrich eggs along the red carpet?

Taste has a lot to do with class, breading and money


Why is Elizabeth Hurley’s dress considered in good taste.

Is it because she is upper class(posh totty)and that it is a Versace dress, there for up market from Bjork’s  dress.


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My cultural view


Our beliefs. Values and other frames of reference by which we make sense of the world.

Situated culture

All those small scale communications and interactions we have on a day to day basis. This kind of culture is primarily an oral one, it is passed on by word of mouth.

Task – selected an image/artefact/object of your choosing for analysis.

Tracey emin’s bed


My Initial reaction-(disgust, revulsion. )

Formal elements of the object-(A bed, scruffy, un-kept, slovenly, untidy.)

Name title / artist – (My bed by Tracey Emin)

Genre -( Expressionist)

Subject matter- (Tracey Emin and her life)

Is the work functional, purely aesthetic or both?-( None)

Dose the work relate to an art movement or group?-(not as far as I can tell)

Is the artist maker affected by a dominant ideology of the time?- war?, or social/historical significance? if so how does the work reflect this?

Yes the artist was affected by her own past, which looks like it was quite a messy place. Her work reflects it too a T.

Does the work challenge the dominant ideology i.e is the work unconventional, alternative ore oppositional?

I would put it down as unconventional.

How has the work been received by the public?

Some with disgust on how she has displayed her most degrading and demeaning emotional times in public(airing her dirty laundry in public) some with fascination.

My thoughts and feelings.

Research has not changed the way I feel about it, the more I research into it the more I dislike it. again I think that is where my cultural views come into it. In my culture you do not put your life on public display, especially if it is that messy. What happens in your life stays hidden from the public is demeaning and shows you do not have any self respect or shame, if you are willing to expose your personal life and make a spectacle of it.



Tracey Emin’s My Bed, short-listed in autumn 1999 for the Turner Prize (plate 1), presents a base supporting a mattress, on top of which are rumpled sheets, pillows, panty-hose and a towel; cluttered alongside is an assortment of items from vodka bottles to slippers and underwear, cigarette packs to condoms and contraceptives, Polaroid (self)portraits to a white fluffy toy. For her London critics, My Bed exemplified and expressed Emin’s sluttish personality, the detritus of a life quintessentially her own; it was, above all, confessional. Such links were encouraged by the mise-en-scene with its misspelled jottings, declamatory textile and neon, memorabilia, and ‘home videos’ in which the camera wandered, accompanied by voice-overs by the artist, through scenarios of clutter similar to that of My Bed and filmed in her apartment near Waterloo station in London, all of which facilitated elisions between life and art and confusions between the two.

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Is it art?

Tracy Emin’s My Bed

Emin’s confessional unmade bed was short-listed in autumn 1999 for the Turner Prize. Charles Saatchi bought the piece for £150,000 and allegedly put it in a room in his own home. The Guardian called it the “birth of a phenomenon” and ran with the headline “How this bed turned from work of art to modern icon in less than two weeks”.

But this paper’s critic, Richard Dorment calls Emin a “phoney”. In 1999 he wrote: “Emin shows memorabilia amassed during the course of a life marked by promiscuity, rape, abortion, alcohol abuse and financial destitution, but also by phenomenal critical and financial success, achieved by marketing graphic descriptions of her most intimate feelings and degrading experiences as works of art. Billing herself as a modern day Expressionist, Emin brings life — in the forms of videos and things taken from the real world — into the art gallery and leaves it there, more or less unchanged, like unprocessed sewage. . . .What interests me about Emin is not her relentless self-absorption, limitless self-pit or compulsion to confess the sad details of her past life, but that all of this adds up to so little of real interest”.

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The rise of visual culture-

e rise of visual culture-

Our beliefs, values and other frames of reference by which we make sense of the world.

Situated culture-shapes our culture, situated culture is an oral one, it is passed on by word of mouth.

Yes culture has a lot to do with the way we look at things.

Vesta Tilley


Publicity photograph of Vesta Tilley as a man, late 19th century

Vesta Tilley was a male impersonator from the music halls. Born in Worcester in 1864

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In that era a women who smoked in public would have provoked outrage, but when vesta tilly appeared on stage dressed as a dandified gentleman with a cigarette between her teeth, she induced laughter.

At the time few women smoked and even fewer dared to be seen smoking  in public.

Visual culture at the time dictated that women did not smoke, it was a male thing.

my cultural back ground and struggle against it-

What its like to be a woman in India.

Visual culture(India)-a women seen smoking, wearing western cloths, being self assertive, going out on her own, having an alcoholic drink-(ideology)-she must be of ill repute and hence ridiculed.

Being half British, and dressing as I pleased. I was ridiculed for most of my life. Before I even reached puberty I was labelled as having a loose character. Just because I was different.

If a women is dressed in a way in which she looks sexy, modern or stands out from the crowd(ideology)-she is asking for trouble.

Hopefully this ideology will change as Indian women fight back.



For All the World to See: Visual Culture and the Struggle for Civil Rights

For All the World to See is the first comprehensive museum exhibition to explore the historic role played by visual images in shaping, influencing, and transforming the fight for civil rights in the United States.

Organizing Institutions: Center for Art, Design and Visual Culture, University of Maryland, Baltimore County and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Washington, D.C.


Curator: Maurice Berger, Research Professor, Center for Art, Design and Visual Culture, UMBC


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In September 1955, shortly after Emmett Till was murdered by white supremacists in Money, Mississippi, his grieving mother, Mamie Till Bradley, distributed to newspapers and magazines a gruesome black-and-white photograph of his mutilated corpse. Asked why she would do this, Mrs. Bradley explained that by witnessing, with their own eyes, the brutality of segregation and racism, Americans would be more likely to support the cause of racial justice and equality. “Let the world see what I’ve seen,” was her reply. The publication of the photograph transformed the modern civil rights movement, inspiring a new generation of activists to join the cause.


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memento mori

Memento mori

All photographs are memento mori.

Memento mori-

Memento Mori is Latin for reminder of death. Skulls which are represented in Northern European portraits and still lifes, and South European depictions of saints, of the 16th and 17th centuries are perhaps the most obvious examples of such subjects.

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Such elements are painted as a reminder that death is the great leveller, which puts an end to all worldly achievements.

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old collection of mourning pins

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The advent of photography in the Victoria era provided an important new way for the bereaved to remember their dead.

In many cases, poverty stood squarely in the way of obtaining expensive painted portraits capturing loved ones in the prime of their lives.

Hence cheaper photography sessions began to grow in popularity – especially among bereaved families, whom in many cases, were finally able to obtain the only image they had of the deceased.

The earliest images of this trend rarely featured coffins and would often see the deceased posed in an everyday position in an attempt to capture their essence during life.

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At no other time in history than in the Victorian era have people been so preoccupied with the dead . It was during the Victorian era that post-mortem photography (also known as memorial portraiture, mourning photography, or memento mori ) thrived. Post-mortem photography, the practice of photographing the newly deceased, was an extremely prevalent form of photography in the Victorian era. more photographs of this type were taken, than of any other single type of photography in that era.

The clergy of the sixteenth century were often painted immediately following death, usually sitting up, or lying, in bed. In the early nineteenth century, it was customary to paint the portraits of wealthy young children who had died, usually posed in an every day position.

Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre invented the daguerreotype process. The daguerreotype process was the first practicable method of obtaining permanent images with a camera.

now more people could afford  to memorialize their was not as expensive as commissioning a portrait of them, and it was much quicker.

the daguerreotype photograph was a  detailed image on a sheet of copper plated with a thin coat of silver. Although daguerreotypes are unique images, they could be copied by daguerreotyping the original. Copies were also produced by lithography or engraving. These photographs  served to preserve the image of the deceased in a way that had not previously been available to the majority of Victorians.

In most cases, a post-mortem photograph might be the only image of the deceased that the family ever had. The most common post-mortem photographs ate those of infants and young children.  childhood mortality rates were very high in that era. memorial portraits were the only image most families would have had to remember their lost child by.


photography took on colour-tinted ambrotypes in 1854, thin negative images on glass made to appear as a positive by showing them against a black background. Ambrotypes were half the price of sold at less than half the price of daguerreotypes . Tintypes,  in 1856  were cheaper yet. tintypes made photography universally available.

while the costs involved with photography decreased, the price for a post-mortem photograph actually increased, indicating its value and continued popularity.

Eventually, technology allowed for multiple copies of the same print to be enjoyed by relatives. This was close to the turn of the 20th century

By 1859, a new photographic process, producing the carte de visite or CDV became popular. The CDV was a small  thin paper photograph mounted on a thicker paper card. With a CDV, multiple prints could be made from a single negative. Copies of the post-mortem photograph could be sent to relatives. Surviving family members would hanging them in their homes, send copies to friends and relatives. wear them as lockets, or carry them as pocket mirrors.

The official practice of postmortem photography began to fade in the early twentieth century.when  Kodak introduced the Brownie camera and “snapshot” photography became a mass phenomenon.

Art in Bristol: Memento Mori from Friday, March 29 to Thursday, May 2, at Bristol Folk House
Read more:

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Visual culture

Signs+ pictures have a cultural identity and you need to already know the meaning of them to be able to understand them.

Big brother eye-where does big brother come from?

Big brother-1984 George Orwell book, being watched by the thing you are watching.

I did not recognize this image when shown as it did not have any cultural meaning to me. hence all I saw was a meaningless image.

Big brother

Intertextuality -one text is the TV show, also relates to the book by George Orwell.

Denote-what the image is

Connote(connotation)-suggested by the image

Polycemic-many meaning.

Media favours the negative/depressing/sad(bad news sells).

Untitled picture

Big brother-

Did not mean any thing to me.

As I am from a different culture, all I saw

Was an eye.


What does it mean to you?

Depending on your cultural background,

it will have a very different meaning.

In my culture the swastika is a very

auspicious sign, It goes back to the Vedic


The symbol of the swastika has been in use

for over 3000 years.

Original meaning-Life, sun, power, strength,

and good luck




Untitled pictureSwastika

The Nazi flag ,the swastika soon became a

symbol of hate, anti-Semitism, violence,

death and murder.

The Nazis were so effective at their use of the swastika symbol, that many do not even know or remember the other meaning of the swastika.


How to find the meaning of an image-

1- Describing and interpreting

2- Denotation and Connotation

3- Signifie and signified

to describe a visual artefact of any kind we begin with gathering data-what is here?-what an I looking at?-what do I know with certainty about this image?

It  is a close examination of those elements we can clearly and accurately identify.


Mass media provides us with- information, entertainment, ideas, opinions.

Yes culture has a lot to do with the way we look at things.

Culture can refer to text and symbols which are encoded specifically by and for people with the same cultural identification.

Sender-message-receiver( encodes-medium-decodes)

The medium is the channel or means of communicating.

Medium-newspaper-television-film-radio-internet and so on.

You know if your message has been understood correctly by the feedback you receive.

i.e you can understand everything I have written so far, and can give me feedback on it.

लेकिन आपको यह समझमें नहीं आएगा.

But you will not be able to interpret the sentence I have just written. But if you were from the same cultural background as me you would be able to read and understand it.


Mass media enables the decoding and translation of messages on a very large scale.

Mass media started with the newspapers in the 1850’s and photographs in the 1880’s,the cinema in the 1900’s,the radio in the 1920’s, the television in the 1950’s and finally the internet in the 1990’s.

I agree with Mcluhan in the phrase-Human communication through electronic mass media would result in a collapse of time and space barriers, allowing people to interact and live on a global scale, rendering national boundaries meaningless.

On the other hand we have become dependant on mass media to know what is going on in the world.


Mistrust of popular culture-in my opinion some popular culture deservs to be mistrusted and yes they are thought to debase or degrade cultural traditions and standards, as an Indian I do not agree with some of the things shown on the media, on the other hand if it was not for the media I would not be putting forward my opinion on popular culture as there would be none.


Mass media has been an eye opener for some cultures.

i.e. back in India, in my village we only got satellite TV recently. And I remember one of my neighbours asking me if it was true that whales he had never seen anything like that before, and wanted to know if what he was seeing on the television was true.

So in some respects wide scale mass media has it’s benefits, by spreading awareness on a large scale.

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Notes session 3

Notes session 3

O-Gillian ross

O-1970-take over philosophy.

O-A sign is simply a thing, which has a particular meaning to a person.

O-Code driving hazard-coloured yellow sign-for motorists(sloe down and watch out for moose)

O-sign of Madonna + child- from painter-virgin birth-Christianity-broaden-motherhood, sanctifying motherhood(as a women it is the best you can be)red signifying royalty, blue-purity.

O-sign of big lamp post and little lamp post,-Madonna and child ,-code-highway-art,-from the artist,-Brad Downey,-for- the public,-for people interested in art at a lecture in art collage,

O- who commissioned it?

O-signify-question place of cars in our culture. Place of signs in our culture, or could be that we worship signs in our culture.

O-The way we dress, keep our hair are all signifiers, they say things about us.

O- memento mori.

All photographs are memento mori.

Memento mori- remember you will die.

A snap shot of a moment in time, to remind you of your mortality, nothing is for ever.

O-there are always 2 people in a photo, the photographer and the viewer.

O-the photo does not exist unless being viewed .

O-Vietnam burning it’s own village’s with napalm.

O-There might be something bigger that we can’t capture in photos

O-Agnes’s wedding bag

Bangle with pig-fashion-photographs.

Tracy Emien – unmade bed.

Shroud by Yeuley som-beautiful tranquil, nature, eco friendly, shroud rather than coffin.

O-connotation of your work and connotation of presentation.

O-examining ideas around truth of image power it has. representation and reality.

The male gaze-women in bond movies-function to be looked at


O- our beliefs, values and other frames of reference by which we make sense of the world.

O-situated culture- shapes our culture.

O-Situated culture is an oral one is passed on by word of mouth.

O-mass media-information, entertainment, ideas, opinions

O-yes culture has a lot to do with the way we look at things.



O-reading over things can change over time.

O- seek out an example of a piece of craft work, that has changed over time.

O- kath kidson,-

Reworking ideas about religion

More of an individual thing

O-Emily Sande- heaven(song)music videos have a lot to denote.

O-pick most interesting to you to wright in your journal.

Meaning of image, culture and the way it makes us feel and see things.

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Gate keepers-who are they? what do they do?

Gatekeepers-a close group of expert insiders,or even conspirators,who determine who is in and who is out,what is worthy of attention and what is not.what is condemned and what is condoned.

gatekeepers are often gallery owners who choose whether to grant someone an exhibit.



Kurt Lewin was apparently the first one to use the term “gatekeeping “which he used to describe a wife or a mother as the person who decides which food ended up on the family’s dinner table.(Lewin,1947)

The gatekeeper decides which information will go forward, and which will other words a gatekeeper in a social system decides which of a certain commodity-material, goods and information may enter the system.

Important to realize is that gatekeepers are able to control the public’s knowledge of the actual events by letting some stories pass through  the system but keeping others out. Gatekeepers can also be seen as institutions or organizations. In a political system

There are gatekeepers, individuals or institutions which control access to positions of power and regulate the flow of information and political influence. Gatekeepers exist in many jobs, and their choices hold the potential to colour mental pictures that are subsequently created in peoples understanding of what is happening in the world around them. Media gatekeeping showed that decision making is based on principles of news values, organizational routines.

Examples of gatekeeping-the media, the government, the education system, galleries.

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The craft council- what is it?

The craft council is the national agency for contemporary crafts.



The crafts council’s goal is to make the U.K the best place to make, see,collect and learn about contemporary craft.

The craft council delivers it’s activities through four strategic themes-

1 make-stimulating and profiling creative excellence, innovative thinking and practice across all craft forms.

2 see- change peoples perceptions of craft by showing the best of contemporary craft in different physical and conceptual contexts.

3 collect-supporting the growth of a robust craft sector

4 learn-promoting craft education and skills, progression for the economic and cultural health of the sector




Gender in craft

The place of women in craft


My thoughts and feelings-we have always had women in craft, yes in the old days women were more behind the scenes than men, they would embroider, make tapestries, sew, etc. while men were more in the public eye, as carpenters, smiths, cobblers and such, but we have come a long way since then, what with equal rights and women’s liberation.

In the 1950s when my mother was in school, girls were not allowed to take up carpentry or metal work in schools, they were only allowed to take home science, embroidery etc. But like I said we have come a long way from then.

In the modern world women can take up any craft, which in the past would have been reserved for men only, but now would be socially acceptable for women to do.

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